Scope of Hypertension


Hypertension is a cardiovascular disease. Cardiovascular disease includes all diseases of the heart and blood vessels, which also include rheumatic fever and heart disease, ischaemic heart disease, pulmonary heart disease and diseases of pulmonary circulation.

Hypertension is defined as elevated systemic arterial blood pressure (BP) to a level likely to generate cardiovascular damage or other adverse consequences [[#cite_note-1|[1]]] . For over 100 years, clinicians have used upper arm BP to define hypertension, to assess the risk and guide therapy. The two BP values recorded during each measure indicate the blood in the brachial arterial during maximal pressure (systolic BP) and minimal pressure (diastolic BP). Estimating the BP occuring within the other blood vessels of the body and the risk to structural damage of the blood vessels [[#cite_note-2|[2]]] . Majority of research, including Australian Guidelines[[#cite_note-3|[3]]] , and the seventh report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation and Treatment of High Blood Pressure[[#cite_note-4|[4]]] , defines hypertension as having a systolic BP of 140mm Hg or greater, having a diastolic BP of 90mm Hg or greater, or taking antihypertensive medication . In addition, it is possible to have white-coat hypertension, which is when a person’s BP is elevated when measured by a physician or other health care personnel, but is normal when measured outside a healthcare setting.

BP Classification
SBP (mm Hg)
DBP (mm Hg)
Normal
<120
<80
High-Normal (Prehypertension)
120-139
80-89
Grade 1 Hypertension (mild)
140-159
90-99
Grade 2 Hypertension (moderate)
160-179
100-109
Grade 3 Hypertension (severe)
180
110
Isolated systolic hypertension
140
<90
Isolated systolic hypertension with widened pulse pressure
160
70
Data from: National Heart Foundation of Australia (NHFA) (National Blood Pressure and Vascular Disease Advisory Committee) (2008). Guide to Management of Hypertension.






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  1. [[#cite_ref-1|^]]Contractor, A. & Gordon, N. Cited from: Ehrman, J. K., Gordon, P. M., Visich, P. S., & Keteyian, S. J. (2009). Clinical Exercise Physiology. Human Kinetics.
  2. [[#cite_ref-2|^]]Sharman, J. & Stowasser, M. (2009). Australian Association for Exercise and Sports Science position statement on exercise and hypertension. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport; 12, 252-257.
  3. [[#cite_ref-3|^]]National Heart Foundation of Australia (NHFA) (National Blood Pressure and Vascular Disease Advisory Committee) (2008). Guide to Management of Hypertension.
  4. [[#cite_ref-4|^]]Chobanian, A., Bakris, G., Black, H., Cushman, W., Green, L., Izzo, J., Jones, D., Materson, B., Oparil, S., Wright, J., Roccella, E. (2003). The seventh report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure: the JNC 7 report. JAMA; 289:2560-2572.